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Indus Valley civilization

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1 Indus Valley civilization Bir Salı Ekim 05, 2010 1:33 am



Indus Valley civilization

Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and other cities. (Modern Pakistan, Which was a part of India until 1947)

The "First" Out of Africa (OOA) migration, circa 60,000 B.C, saw Blacks with straight hair, taking a route along the coast of Asia, and then "Island hopping" across the Indian Ocean to Australia - the Australian Aborigine. And then making their way to South America - the remains called "Luzia" in Brazil. Australian Aborigine

Modern Mans first Out of Africa (OOA) migration route to Australia

Those wishing to pursue an understanding of the Human Journey, and Specifics of the ancient East African migrations, which led to Modern Man's colonization of the entire world; please visit the National Geographic – Genographic Project – Atlas of the Human Journey. Though as one would expect, when it comes to European and Anatolian (Turkey) settlement, it is not only inaccurate, it is downright Racist. But what would you expect? The second (OOA) migration event, circa 50,000 B.C. saw Blacks from Africa, SOME with "Mongol features" take an "Inland route" through southern Asia and on up to China, where they settled.
Included with this group, were SOME straight haired Blacks "Without" Mongol features - now called "Dravidians" who stayed close to Africa, and settled in India and other areas of Southern Asia. Dravidians

Other Indians

Other Indians

Also included with this second (OOA) group were Albinos, who were probably motivated by a quest for relief from the heat and burning Sunshine of southern Africa - and relief from the torment heaped upon them by normal Africans. Even today, superstitious Blacks of southern Africa; maim and mutilate Albinos in the ignorant belief that their body parts process magical properties, which they use in rituals. These are "Authentic" Albinos of the "Original" People of India - The "Dravidians".



The Albino pictures above, are taken from the study by Andreas Deffner titled: White, too white A Portrait of Albinism in India.

Link to the study


Albinism is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair. Albinism is hereditary; The principal gene which results in albinism prevents the body from making the usual amounts of the pigment melanin. Most forms of albinism are the result of the biological inheritance of genetically recessive alleles (genes) passed from both parents of an individual, though some rare forms are inherited from only one parent.
But the main reason the Albinos left Africa was the burning Sunshine of southern Africa. Because organisms with albinism have skin that lacks (sufficiently or entirely) the dark pigment melanin, which helps protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun, they can sunburn easily from overexposure. Most of the more than 2 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosed yearly in the United States are considered to be sun-related. Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes - the cells that produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin. Melanin helps protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. These Albinos continued on to Central Asia, where they settled.
Skin Cancer

Of course, Dravidians are not the only Black People who can produce European type offspring. ANY Black couple with "Straightish" type hair and defective OCA2 genes, will produce offspring that is "Identical" to - and in fact is - a European type offspring.
Confirmation that the White (Caucasian) Race is derived from Dravidian Albinos, is documented in the findings from genetic analysis of Y-DNA haplogroup "R".

Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup P, defined by the M207 mutation. This haplogroup is believed to have arisen around 26,800 years ago, somewhere in Central Asia or South Asia, where its ancestor Haplogroup P is most often found at polymorphic frequencies. Cambridge University geneticist Kivisild et al. (2003) suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup: Given the geographic spread and STR diversities of sister clades R1 and R2, the latter of which is restricted to India, Pakistan, Iran, and southern central Asia, it is possible that southern and western Asia were the source for R1 and R1a differentiation. The R haplogroup is common throughout Europe and western Asia and the Indian sub-continent, and in those whose ancestry is from within these regions. It also occurs in North and Sub-Saharan Africa. The distribution is markedly different for the two major subclades R1a and R1b. Haplogroup R1a is typical in populations of Eastern Europe, Indian Subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. R1a has a significant presence in Northern Europe, Central Europe, Altaians and Iran as well as in Siberia. R1a can be found in low frequencies in the Middle East, mostly in Indo-European speakers or their descendants. Haplogroup R1b predominates in Western Europe. R1b can be found at high frequency in Bashkortostan (Russia). R1b can be found at low frequency in Central Asia, Middle East, South Asia as well as North Africa. There is an isolated pocket of R1b in Sub Saharan Africa. In Europe, R1b coincides with areas of Celtic influence.

The Indus Valley Civilizations

Sometime around 6,000 B.C. a nomadic herding people, who some now think to be Dravidians, settled into villages in the Mountainous region just west of the Indus River. There they grew barley and wheat, harvesting it using sickles with flint blades. They lived in small houses built with adobe bricks. After about 5000 B.C. the climate in their region changed, bringing more rainfall, which apparently enabled them to grow more food, for they grew in population. They began domesticating sheep, goats and cows and then water buffalo.
Molded tablet showing a man spearing a water buffalo with one foot pressing the head down and one arm holding the tip of a horn. A gharial (Crocodile) is depicted above the sacrifice scene, and a figure seated in yogic position, wearing a horned headdress is to the right.
Three sided molded tablet. This side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the top of two poles. Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second side is a snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight symbols of the Indus script.

Then after 4000 B.C. they began to trade with distant areas in central Asia and areas west of the Khyber Pass. They also began using bronze and other metals. In time the total area of the Indus civilization, became larger than that of the old kingdom of Egypt. Their cities were characterized by buildings of elaborate architecture, constructed of fired brick, with sewage systems and paved streets.
molded tablet showing a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. A single Indus script depicting a spoked wheel is above the head of the deity Female figure with headdress and Jewerly. Harappa - 2,600 - 1,900 B.C. Female figure with headdress and Jewerly. Harappa - 2,600 - 1,900 B.C.

Typical of these large planned cities, is Mohenjo-daro, which along with it's great buildings, had city streets laid out in a grid. The city is thought to have housed roughly 50,000 people, and had a granary, baths, assembly halls and towers. The city was divided into two parts, west of the city there stood a citadel surround by a wall.
This citadel appears to have been a religious center. The Citadel included an elaborate tank or bath, created with fine quality brickwork and sewer drains, this area was then surrounded by a verandah. Also located here was a giant granary, a large residential structure, and at least two aisled assembly halls. To the east of the citadel was the lower city, laid out in a grid pattern.

The streets were straight and were drained to keep the area sanitary. Mohenjo-Daro had a building with an underground furnace and dressing rooms, suggesting bathing was done in heated pools - as in modern day Hindu temples. The people of the city used very little stone in their construction. They preferred bricks, two types of bricks mainly - fired bricks, and wood bricks - which were created by using burnt wood ash.

Mohenjo-daro Priest king - 2,600 B.C.
Mohenjo-daro terracotta statue head

They used timber to create the flat roofs of their buildings, there are brick stairways leading to the roofs of many houses, suggesting that roofs were used as recreational areas - as in early Anatolia. Houses were of various sizes, some were small, and others were large with interior courtyards and indoor bathrooms. Several craftsman workshops have been found, such as metalworking, carpentry, and shell-working.
Harappa 2,300 B.C.
Harappa 2,300 B.C.

Defensively Mohenjo-daro was a well-fortified city. Though it did not have city walls, it did have towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. These fortifications taken into consideration, as well as a comparison to the Harappa ruins to the northeast, lead to the conclusion that perhaps Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout (Harappa is less well preserved due to early site defilement), and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning (and even the placement and type) of an administrative center remains unclear. Lothal was situated at the head of the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat. Here archaeologists have found large warehouses ready to hold goods for export.

The people of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and the other cities, shared a sophisticated system of weights and measures, used arithmetic with decimals, and had a written language that was partly phonetic and partly ideographic. The Indus people also utilized seals for signatures and pictorial presentation, as did the people to the northwest in Elam and Sumer. The Indus valley people carried on active trade relations with the middle-east in gold, copper utensils, lapis lazuli, ivory, beads and semiprecious stones.

The Indus religion was animistic, they used the Unicorn, cattle, elephants and other animals to represent their gods. They are seemingly the originators of the Unicorn, {the exact meaning of a horned Horse is unknown}. The Indus seals are amulets addressed to the gods and were worn on the body.
In the Seal below, we have a depiction of the Deity (in this case Maal/Mal) as a Unicorn, and then the votive inscription was written above the Deity (in Harappan script).The manger, under the head of Maal is made up of several Indus signs. It reads Puu-i- Paa, or " A flourishing Condition, Thou distribute it".

Sometime between 1,800 and 1,700 B.C. Civilization on the Indus Plain all but vanished. What befell these people is unknown. One suspected cause is a shift in the Indus River, another is a huge ruinous Earthquake, still another is monumental flooding of the rivers. Flooding that would explain the thick layers of silt, thirty feet above the level of the river at the site of Mohenjo-Daro. Of course these are only unsubstantiated theories, no one knows what really caused the people to leave. Later, people of a different culture inhabited some of the abandoned cities, in what archaeologists call a "squatter period."

Then the squatters also disappeared: Careful note should be made, that only the people and culture of the valley vanished. The Indus Valley civilization was the largest of its time and covered a vast territory. It effectively extended north to the Himalayas and east to what is now Vietnam. But because of the Arian invasion or migration, whichever, subsequent Indus history was lost.
Additionally, we should keep in mind that the Arian's were illiterate nomads, {the Rig Veda was written 600 years after they had arrived}, so whomever it was that kept civilization alive in India, during the convulsive period, it couldn't have been them. Surviving remnants of the Indus valley people in Southeast Asia, will be dealt with later.
Knowledge of the Mohenjo-Daro civilization died, until archaeologists discovered evidence of the civilization in the twentieth century. As to where these people went, no one knows for sure. Some believe that they went to southern India, some surely did.
But one guess is that many of the Indus Valley people went to the north, into Elam and Sumer to re-join their former group. This scenario would explain the somewhat “sudden” appearance of the Medes and Persians in Elam, as well as other, similar groups in eastern Anatolia.

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2 Indus Valley-2 Bir Salı Ekim 05, 2010 5:51 pm



Indus Valley-2

Modern Pakistan (Which was a part of India until 1947)

When last we left the Indus Valley, Civilization there had ceased at about 1,800 and 1,700 B.C. Perhaps because of some unknown natural disaster. If rainfall declined in the Indus region between 1800 and 1700 B.C, then around 1500 B.C. it increased again, making the Indus Plain better able to support life. It was between 1500 and 1200 B.C. that the Dravidian Albinos who had originally migrated from Africa into India and then continued North into Central Asia, to escape the Burning Sunshine found at lower latitudes returned to India.
Dravidian Albinos

No one knows why the Albinos left Central Asia; perhaps it was some natural disaster, or perhaps they had overpopulated the sparse land and now found it difficult to acquire enough food there. Whatever the cause, within the next 2,000 years (1,500 B.C. to 500 A.D.) ALL the millions of Albinos (Caucasians) would abandon Central Asia and move to India and Europe. Today the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group, who live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in the People's Republic of China, are the only Caucasians still living in Eastern and Central Asia. (Many are actually now mixed-race).
The Uyghurs of Xinjiang Uyghur China

It is also not known why they would hazard a return to lands that they originally found inhospitable because of the intense Sunshine. Perhaps over the tens-of-thousands of years that they spent in Central Asia, they were able to acquire a "Fixed" degree of Melanination through crossbreeding with the Blacks in China and Eastern Europe who surrounded them (see the Eastern Europe and China pages).
Central Asian Plains

Unlike their normally pigmented brethren who stayed behind in India, they had not evolved into a civilized people. They had not developed a written language, technology or cities. They returned to India as an illiterate, pastoral people now called Aryans/Arians. They migrated from the steppe lands of Central Asia through what is now Afghanistan, down through the Khyber Pass and onto the sparsely populated Indus Plain (The Khyber Pass, altitude: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft. is a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan).
The Arian Invasion

This subject IS controversial; Hindus themselves say that the Arian's were immigrants NOT conquers. However, There can be no doubt that:
1) Indians ARE a mix of indigenous people and the Albinos – in very varying degrees (excepting Dravidians).

2) The Rig Veda, which is one of the earliest known writings written in any Indo-European language, The Hindu Bible of sorts. The Rig Veda speaks explicitly of war with, and conquest of Blacks.

Here are some excerpts from the Rig Veda.

The Arian words for the original people were {Dasyus, Dasas and Simyus}.

It should be kept in mind, that the Veda's were written several centuries after the fact. As is always the case with oral histories, myth and fact become blended over time and then become indistinguishable, one from the other. a) He, much invoked, hath slain Dasyus and Simyus, after his wont, and laid them low with arrows.
The mighty Thunderer with his fair-complexioned friends won the land, the sunlight, and the waters.

b) Sing, with oblation, praise to him who maketh glad, who with Rjisvan drove the dusky brood away.

c) Indra in battles help his Arian worshipper, he who hath hundred helps at hand in every fray, in frays that win the light of heaven.
Plaguing the lawless he gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin; Blazing, 'twere, he burns each covetous man away, he burns, the tyrannous away.

d) Strengthened by songs of praise thou rentest piecemeal the Dasa, him who deemed himself immortal. With us mayst thou, O Indra, waxen splendid, with Surya overcome the Dasa races.

e) Indra the Vrtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dasa hosts who dwelt in darkness. {Prof. Uthaya Naidu translates this as "who sprang from a black womb."}

f) When in his arms they laid the bolt, he slaughtered the Dasyus and cast down their forts of iron.

g) His kine their Lord hath shown, e'en Vrtra's slayer, through the black
hosts he passed with red attendants.

h) Active and bright have they come forth, impetuous in speed like bulls,
Driving the black skin far away.

i) Blowing away with supernatural might from earth and from the heavens the swarthy skin which Indra hates.

3) There is no other way to account for The Hindu Caste system, except as something put in place by an invader, who upon conquering an indomitable foe, and seeking to insure that he does not rise again, codifies his status with religious dogma and social taboo's.
The Albino advance, interaction with the Black People

The Aryans/Arians came to the Indus Plain on horseback, in waves separated perhaps by decades or longer. Like other pastoral people, they were warriors, the Arian's were familiar with prowling and hunting and with bow and arrow. Each family was ruled by an authoritarian male, and each Arian tribe was ruled by a king called a raja, who was obliged to consult with tribal councils, on matters of major importance.
Like other pastoral people, the Arian invaders were storytellers. They brought with them their centuries old sacred hymns, myths and oral history - stories that expressed their desire to please their gods. They had a father god of the heaven, sky and atmosphere: called Dyaus Pitar (sky father). They had a male god of thunder and rain called Indra, who was also the god of war.
The Arians had a god of fire they called Agni. To the Arian's, Agni "was" fire, and they believed that Agni hungrily devoured the animals that they sacrificed in their rituals of burning. These sacrifices were performed by priests to obtain from their gods the gifts of children, success in war, wealth, health, longevity, food, drink or anything else that contributed to their happiness.
With the passing years, the waves of Arian tribes that had come to the Indus Plain, spread out across the region. They warred against the ancient original people, and they took and settled their land. This land then provided the Arians with pasture for their animals. The Arians grouped in villages and built homes of bamboo or light wood - homes without statues or art. They soon learned agriculture and began growing crops. The environment supplied them with all they needed. But perhaps responding to their old traditions and impulses, the Arian tribes began warring against each other - wars that might begin with the stealing of cattle.
Because of these wars, gradually Arian tribal kings began changing from elected leaders to autocratic rulers. Arian kings had begun associating their power with the powers of their gods, rather than the approval of their fellow tribesmen. They began allying themselves with priests. And as in the West, kings were acquiring divinity. By taxing their subjects, these kings could then create armies that were theirs, rather than an instrument of the tribe.
In the decades around 1,000 B.C, there was a shortage of rainfall in the Indus valley, and running from this drought, some Arian tribes trekked eastward along the foot of the Himalayan mountains. Here the jungles were less dense, and the rivers easier to cross, this path took them to the plains of the Ganges Valley. Meanwhile some Arian priests had wandered ahead of their tribes, in order to evangelize among the tribes that they may come upon. They found these societies to have a more egalitarian organization than they had, and so they despised them for not having kings as godly and autocratic as theirs.
By now, the Arian's had acquired iron tools and weapons, iron having spread eastward through Persia. And now with their superior weaponry, the Arian's fought those who resisted their advance. The Arian's believed that the gods were on their side, and that resistance from local peoples was inspired by demons. Gradually the Arian's spread out over much of the Ganges Valley.
Some Arian's also migrated south, along the western coast of the Indian subcontinent, and some Arian's went down the eastern coast, to an area called Kalinga. A few Arian's went as far south as the island that in Hindu literature, was called Lanka. And some Arian priests went as missionaries to southern India. Occasionally the Arian missionaries might feel threatened or mistreated, and they would then seek the aide of their king. This being a good pretext for incursions, their king's warriors would came south to their rescue. Incursions not withstanding, Southern India remained independent of Arian rule.
Dravidian People of Southern India

With the Arian's settling alongside local peoples, a complex hierarchy of classes developed that would be called caste. At the top of this class ranking was the priests and their entire families, the Brahmins. Also at the top were the warrior-aristocrats, the Kshatriyas, whose job it was to practice constantly for combat. Neither the Brahmins nor the Kshatriyas conceded superiority to the other, but they agreed that the other classes were lower than they. The first of these lower classes was the Vaishas and their families. This class were Arian's who tended cattle and served the Brahmins and Kshatriyas in others ways (the middle-class). The lowest class was the conquered Blacks, they were called the Shudras. The Arian's made these four classifications a part of their mythology. The four groups it was claimed, came from the body of the god Prajapati: the Brahmins from the god's mouth, the warriors from the god's arms, the tenders of cattle from his legs, and the Shudras from his feet.
Dravidian People of Southern India

In the beginning this class system was less rigid than it would be centuries later. People from different classes could dine together. A man from a non-Brahmin family could still become a priest and therefore a Brahmin. And although marriage within one's own class was preferred, there was no absolute restriction against marrying people from a different class.
By around 700 or 600 B.C, the migrations of the Arian's had ended. With their new successes in agriculture, the Arian's increased in number and they began to create cities. Arian traders, merchants, and landlords appeared, as did money lending. Arian's began trading with Arabia and the great empire of the Assyrians. In the 600s B.C, India began trading with China, the Malay Peninsula and the islands of what is now, Indonesia and the Philippines. By 600 B.C, numerous cities had arisen in northern India - cities with fortifications, moats and ramparts in response to the dangers of war. In northern India, along the Ganges River, sixteen different kingdoms had emerged.
Over time, a mix developed between the nomadic religion of the Arian's, and the local religions of the conquered. This mix came with Arian males marrying non-Arian females, and it came with some among the conquered, accepting the religion of their conquerors - much as Amerindians in the Americas, accepted the religion of their Christian conquerors.
Mixed Race Hindus


In India this blend of Arian and local religions became known as Hinduism, a word derived from the Arian word Sindu, the name the Arian's gave to the Indus River. The Hindu religion ranged from veneration of traditional Arian gods, by urban intellectuals, to the worship of a diversity of local, rural, and agricultural deities.
Generally; Hinduism is the conviction that the soul or self (atman) is subject to “samsara” the transmigration through many forms of incarnation. Held together with this belief is another, that of “karman” which says that the soul carries with it, the burden of its past actions; which conditions the forms of its future incarnations. As long as the soul mistakes this phenomenal world for reality and clings to existence in it, it is doomed to suffer endless births and deaths. The various Indian cults and philosophical systems offer ways in which to attain moksa or mukti (release or liberation) from the misery of subjection to the inexorable processes of cosmic time. Basically, this liberation consists of the soul's effective comprehension of its essential unity with Brahman, the supreme “Atman” or essence of reality, and it’s merging with it. Most of the ways by which this goal may be attained require self-effort in mastering meditation techniques and living an ascetic life. But, in the devotional (bhakti) cults associated with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva), an intense personal devotion to the deity concerned is believed to earn divine aid to salvation. Also see Jainism – next Indus page.

Vishnu is one of the principal Hindu deities, worshiped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of dharma (moral order). Vishnu, like Siva (the other major god of Hinduism), is a syncretic personality who combines many lesser cult figures and local heroes.
Temple images of Vishnu depict him either sitting, often in the company of his consorts Laksmi (also called Sri) and Bhumidevi (Earth); standing holding various weapons; or reclining on the coils of the serpent Sesa, asleep on the cosmic ocean during the period between the periodic annihilation and renewal of the world. The standing Vishnu is dressed in royal garments and holds in his four (sometimes two) hands the sankha (conch), cakra (discus), gada (club), or padma (lotus). On his chest is the curl of hair known as the srivatsa mark, a sign of his immortality, and around his neck he wears the auspicious jewel Kaustubha. In painting, Vishnu is usually shown as dark complexioned, which is also a distinguishing feature of his incarnations.

Also spelled Siwa, or Shiva, one of the main deities of Hinduism, worshiped as the paramount lord by the Saiva (Shaivite) sects of India. Siva (Sanskrit: “Auspicious One”) is one of the most complex gods of India, embodying seemingly contradictory qualities. He is both the destroyer and the restorer, the great ascetic and the symbol of sensuality, the benevolent herdsman of souls and the wrathful avenger. Though some of the combinations of roles may be explained by Siva's identification with earlier mythological figures, they also arise from a tendency in Hinduism to combine complementary qualities in a single ambiguous figure.
Siva is usually depicted in painting and sculpture as white or ash-colored, with a blue neck (from holding in his throat the poison thrown up at the churning of the cosmic ocean, which threatened to destroy humankind), his hair arranged in a coil of matted locks (jatamakuta) and adorned with the crescent moon and the Ganges (according to legend he brought the Ganges River to earth by allowing her to trickle through his hair, thus breaking her fall). He has three eyes, the third eye bestowing inward vision but capable of burning destruction when focused outward. He wears a garland of skulls and a serpent around his neck and carries in his two (sometimes four) hands a deerskin, a trident, a small hand drum, or a club with a skull at the end.
It can logically be deduced; that having two co-equal supreme gods “Vishnu and Siva” one Black, one White; was an attempt by the Arians to encourage acceptance of the new Hindu religion, by the ingenious people.
Siva is represented in a variety of forms: in a pacific mood with his consort Parvati and son Skanda, as the cosmic dancer (Nataraja), as a naked ascetic, as a mendicant beggar, as a yogin, and as the androgynous union of Siva and his consort in one body, half-male and half-female (Ardhanarisvara). Among his common epithets are Sambhu (“Benignant”), Sankara (“Beneficent”), Pasupati (“Lord of Beasts“), Mahesa (“Great Lord”), and Mahadeva (“Great God”).Siva's female consort is known under various manifestations as Uma, Sati, Parvati, Durga, and Kali (Siva is also sometimes paired with the supreme goddess, Sakti). The divine couple, together with their sons—the six-headed Skanda and the elephant-headed Ganesa—are said to dwell on Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas. Siva's mount and animal image is the bull Nandi; a sculpture of Nandi sits opposite the main sanctuary of every Siva temple. In temples and in private shrines Siva is worshiped in his fundamental form of the linga, or phallus.

Now lets go over to China, to see what the "Other" branch of the Eurasian Tree is up to.

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3 Indus Valley-3 Bir Cuma Ekim 08, 2010 6:02 pm



Indus Valley-3

Modern Pakistan (Which was a part of India until 1947)

When last we left the Indus Valley, Arians from the Central Asian Plains had invaded the Valley and then expanded out into the rest of India. They had also melded their religious belief's with local belief's to form the Hindu religion.
Later, the Arian's learned to write, however some Brahmins considered it a sacrilege to change from communicating their beliefs orally, to putting them in written form. But a sufficient number of Brahmins supported this innovation, and they began to put traditional Arian stories into writing. These writings became known as the Vedas - Veda meaning wisdom. These Vedas became wisdom literature, a literature that would be considered as an infallible source of timeless, revealed truth. The most important of the Vedas was the Rig Veda, which consisted of hymns or devotional incantations written in ten books.
In the far northeast, Brahmins performed as teachers and gave instruction to local original inhabitant elites, who had not been completely Hindunized. These elites were accustomed to deference from local people, and they were offended by the posturing, pride and arrogance of the Brahmins. They resisted the claims of the Brahmins to higher rank and superior knowledge. Some among them opposed the bloodletting of Hinduism's animal sacrifices. Some of them also thought the Brahmins to be too involved in ceremonial formalities and ritual, and saw the Brahmin's view of gods and salvation as strange.
With this dissent against orthodox Hinduism, a variety of men with vision appeared, they tried to fill the void left unfulfilled by Hinduism. These new sect leaders denied the authority of the Vedas, and each developed a code of conduct and a way of living and thinking, that would hopefully lead to enlightenment and fulfillment.

The Jains

This movement was supported by original inhabitants of wealth and influence, who gave their support to one or another of these religious visionary's in their area. These new Sect leaders wandered across the northeast, sometimes with large bands of followers. They entered communities to engage in disputations with rival sects and orthodox Brahmins, these disputations were welcomed entertainment for local people, unused to thoughts and concepts from the outside world.
The most successful of the new sects were those that attempted to provide relief from orthodox Hinduism's failure to alleviate human suffering. One such sect was the Jains - from the Sanskrit verb ji, meaning to conquer. The Jains sought relief from suffering, by conquest over one's own passions and senses. This conquest they believed, gave one purity of soul.
According to legend, the Jains were led by Nataputta Vardhamana, the son of a royal governor from the Magadha region, "Nataputta Vardhamana" gave up his princely status for a life of asceticism, and he became known as Mahavira (Great Souled One). Legend describes Mahavira's beginnings as a reformer - as not seeking to overthrow the Hindu caste system or the worship of Hindu gods, but wishing to do something about the misery that he saw all around him. Legend describes him as having sympathy, not only for people, but also for the animals that the Brahmins sacrificed.
Jain lay persons took the following vows: never to intentionally destroy a living thing, never to speak falsehoods, never to steal, to always be faithful in marriage, to always be chaste outside of marriage, to possess no more money or other things than one had set for oneself as sufficient, (a practical restriction that varied with how wealthy one was), to travel no farther than the limits that one had set for oneself, to think no evil thoughts about others, to sit in meditation as often as one had planned, to spend time as a temporary monk or nun, and to support the nuns and monks with contributions.

Click here for detail of the Jain Religion <>

The Buddhist

Another, who led a religious movement to relieve suffering, was a prince named "Siddhartha Gautama", later to be known as the "Buddha" (Great Teacher). Siddhartha was born into the Sakya tribe at the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, just north of the Ganges Valley. Siddhartha lived in a small city named "Kapilavastu" (in what is now southern Nepal). He is reported to have seen his native city over-run and its people butchered by the Arians. The Sakya tribe was under Arian suzerainty, but had retained it's independence in exchange for a tribute paid to Arian overlords. The Sakya tribe had aristocrats and commoners, and according to legend, Siddhartha was a prince.
According to legend, in his youth, Siddhartha had been sheltered from the ugliness and poverty all around him. But when he was twenty nine - around 534 B.C. - he decided to become a wanderer. Apparently Siddhartha withdrew from a world, that he saw as inhospitable to conquered royalty such as he. Though he was disturbed by the Arian's, he was also fascinated by the Arian people who had destroyed his state and its traditions. The legend created by his followers, describes Siddhartha as having become a wanderer, in order to learn about human existence. He became an ascetic and abused his body by hardly eating. After accepting failure, in his quest to gain understanding of human existence, Siddhartha began eating better, and he began devising what he believed were better solutions to human misery.

Siddhartha agreed with the view expressed in the Upanishads, that the cause of human misery was humanity itself. But he was determined not to fall into what he saw as the error of those who sought salvation in philosophical speculations. He refused to question or discuss whether the cosmos is finite or infinite, or whether there is life after death or other such metaphysical questions. He refused to consider these questions, on the grounds that these questions, sidetrack people from doing something practical about the misery of their existence.

According to legend, Siddhartha became a master of the tenets and practices of other sects, and that many of his disciples were recruited after hearing him debate with religious rivals in town gatherings. Siddhartha preached no warnings of torments for evil deeds, instead he preached the attaining of serenity or nirvana, through self-discipline.

Politically, India followed man's normal course of kingdoms rising and falling, with almost constant warfare. However, there was one kingdom of particular note, it is the kingdom founded by Mahapadma Nanda. The Nandas are universally described as being of low origin, {code for Sudras}, they are of particular note because:
The northwestern part of India, suffered a campaign by Alexander the Great in 327 B.C, he was pursuing his campaign to conquer the extremities of the defeated Achaemenian Empire. Having entered Gandhara, he campaigned successfully across the Punjab as far as the Beas River. Here his troops refused to continue fighting, because they had encountered the army of the Nandas. Some historians suggest that Alexander's Greek soldiers, may have mutinied out of fear of this army.

In Hindu India, the second-highest of the four varnas, or social classes, traditionally the military or ruling class. In ancient times before the caste system was completely defined, they were considered first in rank, placed higher than the Brahmans, or priestly class. The legend that they were degraded by an incarnation of Vishnu as a punishment for their tyranny may reflect a historical struggle for supremacy between priests and rulers. In modern times the Kshatriya varna includes members from a variety of castes, united by their status in government or the military or their land ownership.

The Nanda Dynasty was overthrown in 322 B.C. by Chandragupta Mauryaby who founded The Maurya Empire, and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 B.C. the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.It was the world's largest empire in its time. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan, including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (modern Orissa).
Under Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus region, which was under Macedonian rule. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I, a Greek general from Alexander's army. Under Chandragupta and his successors, both internal and external trade, and agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration and security. After the Kalinga War, the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka: India was a prosperous and stable empire of great economic power whose trade extended across Western and Central Asia and Europe. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism was the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. The Maurya Empire dissolved in 185 B.C. with the foundation of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha.
Foreign invasions continued however, and at one time or another, India was invaded by almost all of the known powers. These included - Scythians, Parthians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Mongols, Turks and Arabs. It was with the Arabs that Islam was brought to India. Each invader in their turn, left their mark. In the 1700s A.D, reasonable stability and unification, was achieved with British rule.

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